WAT VAN RAS? (3)

Dr Willem Jordaan

DIE REALITEIT VAN RAS

Let us make clear what is and what is not arbitrary about races. Race differences are facts of nature which can, given sufficient study, be ascertained objectively

                                                                                                Theodosius Dobehansky

Ek dink selfs die mees geharde liberalis sal nie sukkel om ‘n Sotho van ‘n Rus te onderskei nie. Ook nie ‘n Japanees van ‘n Duitser nie. Tog het die links-liberales groot moeite in die twintigste eeu gedoen om rasverskille te ontken.

Verder het geleenthede na rasse nie as ‘n geskenk gekom nie. Geleenthede is gesoek en indien dit gevind is, ontgin. Deur harde werk is beskawings geskep. So kan vandag gesien word wat die produk of resultaat was van Blanke beskawings en Swart beskawings.

Tog interessant dat diegene wat rasverskille ontken ook die uitvinders van “rassisme” is, wat volgens hulle inhoud van die woord, die haat tussen rasse beteken. Daar is geen rasse nie, maar wel rassehaat. Ek sukkel om daai een te verstaan.

Die ras-konsep verwys nie net na biologiese verskille nie (wat geneties oorgedra word) maar verwys ook na nie-fisiese eienskappe soos kulturele, sosiale en gedragsverskille.

Die konvensionele mening/uitgangspunt is dat daar basies drie rassegroepe bestaan, nl. Die Kaukasoïede (Blanke), Mongoloïede (Geel) en Negroïede (Swart) rasse. Ook wat bloedgroepe betref is bevind dat ses rasse variasies in bloedgroep verdelings bestaan.

Die ouer woordeboeke (wat nie polities korrek was nie) het ook baie duidelike betekenis en definisie aan hierdie onderskeid gegee. In 1774 praat die Shorter Oxford English Dictionary nog van:

                One of the great divisions of mankind, having certain physical peculiarities in common.

Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, professor in genetika aan die Stanford Universiteit, wat beskou word as een van dié kenners op die gebied van die genetika, het die volgende basiese definisie gegee:

A race is a group of individuals that we can recognize as biologically different from others. To be “scientifically” recognized, the differences between a population that we would like to call a race and neighbouring populations must be statistically significant according to some defined criteria.

John Baker het, wat beskou word as die gesaghebbendste werk oor ras, naamlik Race geskryf. Hy maak die volgende stelling wat, weens die belang daarvan volledig aangehaal moet word:

It Is sometimes claimed that the existence of intermediates makes races unreal. It scarcely needs to be pointed out, however, that in other matters no one questions its reality of categories between which intermediates exist. There is every gradation, for instance, between green and blue, but no one denies that these words should be used. In the same way the existence of youths and human hermaphrodites does not cause anyone to disallow the use of the words boy, man and woman. It is particularly injustifiable to cite intermediates as contradicting the reality of races, for the existence of intermediates is one of the distinguishing characters of the race: if there are no intermediates, there are no races.

Die argument dat absolute definitiewe rasse tipes noodsaaklik is om die realiteit van ras te bewys is gevolglik onwaar.  

Arthur James het in sy gedetailleerde analise van die oorsake van populasie verskille tot die volgende gevolgtrekking gekom:

                Racial differences are a product of the evolutionary process working as the human genome, which concists of about 100 000 polymorphic genes (that is, genes that contribute to genetic variations among members of a species) located in the 23 pairs of chromosomes that exist in every celll of the human body.

J. Philipe Rushton weer het die volgende bevinding gemaak soos uiteengesit in sy werk Race, Evolution and Behavior: A Life History Perspective:

Across time, country and circumtance, Africas descended people show similarities that differentiate them from Caucasoids ..... Mongoloids and Caucasoids have the largest brains .... No environmental factor is known to cause an inverse relation between brain size and gamete production nor cause so many diverse variables to cohere in so comprehensive a fashion. There is however a genetic factor: evolution.

Gelykheidskrywers voer graag aan dat 99.9% van menslike gene deur alle rasse gedeel word, dit wil sê dieselfde is. Wat egter nie gesê word nie is dat slegs 50 gene mense van primate onderskei. Muise het minder as 2% gene wat verskil van die mens. Die genetiese ooreenstemming tussen die muis en die mens is verstommend. Enkele gene onderskei ‘n Beethoven van ‘n idioot.

Michael Rienzi het die volgende stelling gemaak oor die aanname dat ‘n ras spesifieke unieke gene moet hê:

[there] is a straw man put up by experts, so that they can knock it down and make politically-motivated claims .... Real scientists understand that racial differences are a result of many patterns of differences in gene frequencies, as well as specific differences in form of various genes that code for racially-relevant physical traits.

Daar bestaan dus oorvloedige wetenskaplike bewyse dat rasse verskil en dat dit ‘n realiteit is.

In ‘n volgende artikel sal na verdere verskille en die effek daarvan in die samelewing gekyk word.